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The future of every vineyard depends on the carefully executed process of planting new vines. Owners, vineyard managers and winemakers must learn more about their vines and the microclimates found in their fields. Patience and constant tending is paramount, as it will be two long years before young vines begin to produce fruit - and at least three before that fruit can begin to be used in winemaking.
In order to save time and space - two valuable commodities in winemaking - vineyards sometimes graft new vines onto a mature root, rather than starting an entirely new plant. With over-grafting, a new varietal can be grown from the rootstock of a different plant. As shown at left, the new grafted vine can begin producing fruit even in the first year. Plantings can include many grape line Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Pinot Noir, , Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Malbec.
Around the world, the most spectacular wines are blends of several types of grapes. The exact formulas of these blends are developed over many years of experimentation by top winemakers
In a Vineyard, composting is an important part of the farming process, with compost developed on the premises. Composting provides a source of prime, rich soil and natural fertilizer. While more labor intensive, using compost allows vineyard managers to use far less chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, protecting the environment. Extensive soil preparation, rich compost, careful cover cropping, and a consideration to wildlife and terrain are what make Vineyards stand out from more commercial farming methods
Once the grapes are harvested, the fruit is crushed immediately in-house in a press. After the sediment has settled, the crushed fruit is "racked," which involves extracting the clean juice. The juice is inoculated with a yeast culture and the fermentation process begins, lasting approximately three weeks. After more racking and filtering and perfecting, the juice goes through a cold-stabilization process before being bottled. Some wineries can bottle up to 2,500 bottles per hour
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